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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This set of three videos illustrates how math is used in satellite data analysis. The videos feature NASA senior climate scientist Claire Parkinson. Parkinson explains how the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers are measured from satellite data and... (View More) how math is used to determine trends in the data. In the first video, she leads viewers from satellite data collection through obtaining a time series of monthly average sea ice extents for November 1978 – December 2012, for the Arctic and Antarctic. In the second video, she begins with the time series from the first video, removes the seasonal cycle by calculating yearly averages, and proceeds to calculate the slopes of the lines to get trends in the data, revealing decreasing sea ice coverage in the Arctic and increasing sea ice coverage in the Antarctic. In the third video, she uses a more advanced technique to remove the seasonal cycle and shows that the trends are close to the same, whichever method is used. She emphasizes the power of math and that the techniques shown for satellite sea ice data can also be applied to a wide range of data sets. (View Less)

This is a collection of mathematics problems relating to the moons of the solar system. Learners will use simple proportional relationships and work with fractions to study the relative sizes of the larger moons in our solar system, and explore how... (View More) temperatures change from place to place using the Celsius and Kelvin scales. (View Less)

This worksheet introduces students to the Aura satellite and its Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Students are asked to visit the Aura website and examine OMI data visualizations to learn about emissions of atmospheric gases such as sulfur... (View More) dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Students gain experience interpreting OMI data visualizations and are asked to consider implications for climate and human health. (View Less)

In these math problems, students will examine the characteristics of water droplets in clouds.

In this problem set, students learn about rainfall rates and how to convert them into the volume of water that falls.

This is a set of three, one-page problems about the scale of objects in images returned by spacecraft. Learners will measure scaled drawings using high-resolution images of the lunar and martian surfaces. Options are presented so that students may... (View More) learn about the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission through a NASA press release or by viewing a NASA eClips video [4 min.]. This activity is part of the Space Math multi-media modules that integrate NASA press releases, NASA archival video, and mathematics problems targeted at specific math standards commonly encountered in middle school. (View Less)

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others.... (View More) Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day. (View Less)

This is a building-wide enrichment program consisting of a series of posters and accompanying questions designed to pique student interest in science concepts and their application to the world in which we live. Accompanying each poster is a series... (View More) of question sheets of increasing difficulty levels that students answer and submit at a designated location (collection box, office, etc.). Random prize drawings can be used to recognize/celebrate student participation. The purpose is to expose students to and create school-wide interest about science so students want to "STOP for Science" as displays are changed throughout the year. Although the focus is building-wide, content can be linked to classrooms through use of accompanying teacher resource guides. The website includes several resources for program facilitators, including posters, answer sheets, podcasts, implementation guide and webinars for facilitators. The program targets grades 3-6 for independent use, but can be used with grades K-2 with adult or upper grade level assistance. Each poster in the series stands alone and is not tied to concepts in other posters. Therefore, posters can be displayed in any sequence desired. (View Less)

Math skills are applied throughout this investigation of windows. Starting with basic window shapes, students determine area and complete a cost analysis, then do the same for windows of unconventional shapes. Students will examine photographs taken... (View More) by astronauts through windows on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station to explore the inverse relationship between lens size and area covered. This lesson is part of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program. (View Less)

This is an activity about the period of the Sun’s rotation. Learners will select images of the Sun from the SOHO spacecraft image archive. Next, they will calculate an image scale for the selected solar images. Then, they will use it to help... (View More) determine the actual speed of sunspots based on measurements of their motion in the selected Sun images and, finally, determine the period of the Sun's rotation. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 3 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)