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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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This is a booklet containing 37 space science mathematical problems, several of which use authentic science data. The problems involve math skills such as unit conversions, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, graph analysis, vectors, scientific... (View More) notation, and many others. Learners will use mathematics to explore science topics related to Earth's magnetic field, space weather, the Sun, and other related concepts. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will... (View More) characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

This is an activity about the period of the Sun's rotation. Learners will use image of the Sun from the SOHO spacecraft and a transparent latitude/ longitude grid called a Stonyhurst Disk to track the motion of sunspots in terms of degrees of... (View More) longitude. Using this angular motion measurement, learners will then calculate the sunspot’s angular velocity in order to determine the rotation period of the Sun. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 4 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum. (View Less)

This booklet contains 11 problem sets and 9 "Extra for Experts" challenges. Learners use provided textual information to determine the scale (e.g., kilometers per millimeter) for images of the lunar surface, Mars, planets, stars and galaxies and... (View More) then identify the smallest and largest features in the images according to their actual physical sizes. These problems involve measurement, dividing whole numbers, decimal mathematics, and scaling principles. Each set of problems is contained on one page. (View Less)

This is an activity about coronal mass ejections. Learners will calculate the velocity and acceleration of a coronal mass ejection, or CME, based on its position in a series of images from the Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) instrument... (View More) on NASA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. This is Activity 2 of a larger resource, Exploring the Sun. The NASA spacecraft missions represented by this material include SOHO, TRACE, STEREO, Hinode, and SDO. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 87 problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including scale, geometry, graph analysis, fractions, unit conversions, scientific notation, simple algebra, and calculus. Each set of problems is contained on one... (View More) page. Learners will use mathematics to explore varied space science topics in the areas of Earth science, planetary science, and astrophysics, among many others. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

This is an activity about utilizing proportional mathematics to determine the height of lunar features. Learners will use the length of shadows to calculate the height of some of the lunar features. This activity is Astronomy Activity 6 in a larger... (View More) resource entitled Space Update. (View Less)

This is an activity about the relative sizes of the Earth and the Moon and the distance between them. Learners will inflate a balloon to the approximate size of the moon in relation to a standard globe. They will then hypothesize as to the correct... (View More) distance between the two and begin to calculate angular size. This is Astronomy Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update. (View Less)

This is a booklet containing 15 problems that incorporate data and information from the Hinode solar observatory. The problems involve math skills such as finding the scale of an image to determine actual physical sizes in images, time calculations,... (View More) volumes of cylinders, graph analysis, and scientific notation. Learners will use mathematics to explore solar science topics such as sunspot structure, spectroscopy, solar rotation, magnetic fields, density and temperature of hot gases, and solar flares. This booklet can be found on the Space Math@NASA website. (View Less)

This is an activity about measuring angular size and understanding the solar and lunar proportions that result in solar eclipses. Learners will use triangles and proportions to create a shoebox eclipse simulator. They will then apply what they learn... (View More) about angular size to predict the diameter and distance of one object that can be eclipsed by another. They will also complete three journal assignments to record observations and conceptual understanding. This activity derives from those demonstrated in the NASA CONNECT television series episode, titled Path of Totality. (View Less)