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**Earth and space science**

**Mathematics**

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The lessons in this book focus on scale and proportion as mathematical topics, using the 5E instructional cycle. Students explore lunar images, and a number of hands-on activities are also provided to allow students to create and explore... (View More) scale-models for spacecraft and lunar craters. (View Less)

This book contains 24 illustrated math problem sets based on a weekly series of space science problems. Each set of problems is contained on one page. The problems were created to be authentic glimpses of modern science and engineering issues, often... (View More) involving actual research data. Learners will use mathematics to explore problems that include basic scales and proportions, fractions, scientific notation, algebra, and geometry. (View Less)

Learners will construct two different types of trusses to develop an understanding of engineering design for truss structures and the role of shapes in the strength of structures. For optimum completion - this activity should span 3 class periods to... (View More) allow the glue on the structures to dry. This is engineering activity 1 of 2 found in the ISS L.A.B.S. Educator Resource Guide. (View Less)

Learners will investigate the relationship between mass, speed, velocity, and kinetic energy in order to select the best material to be used on a space suit. They will apply an engineering design test procedure to determine impact strength of... (View More) various materials. This is engineering activity 2 of 2 found in the ISS L.A.B.S. Educator Resource Guide. (View Less)

This is an activity about using solar arrays to provide power to the space station. Learners will solve a scenario-based problem by calculating surface areas and determining the amount of power or electricity the solar arrays can create. This is... (View More) mathematics activity 1 of 2 found in the ISS L.A.B.S. Educator Resource Guide. (View Less)

Learners will investigate the relationship between speed, distance, and orbits as they investigate how quickly the International Space Station (ISS) can travel to take a picture of an erupting volcano. This is mathematics activity 2 of 2 found in... (View More) the ISS L.A.B.S. Educator Resource Guide. (View Less)

This is a math-science integrated unit about spectrographs. Learners will find and calculate the angle that light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating using trigonometry. After finding this angle, the students will build their... (View More) own spectrographs in groups and research and design a ground or space-based mission using their creation. After the project is complete, student groups will present to the class on their trials, tribulations, and findings during this process. The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System. (View Less)

This is a lesson about using the light from the star during an occultation event to identify the atmosphere of a planet. Learners will add and subtract light curves (presented as a series of geometrical shapes) to understand how this could occur.... (View More) The activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System. (View Less)

Learners will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the students will design their own spectrograph using the information learned. The... (View More) activity is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering program for middle-high school students, focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System. (View Less)

This is an activity about spacecraft radio communications. Learners will explore spacecraft radio communications concepts, including the speed of light and the time-delay for signals sent to and from spacecraft. Learners measure the time it takes... (View More) for a radio signal to travel to a spacecraft using the speed of light, demonstrate the delay in radio communication signals to and from a spacecraft, and devise unique solutions to the radio-signal-delay problem. In an extension, learners are asked to calculate the distance the spacecraft traveled. All NASA spacecraft missions have a telecommunications system and use radio waves to transmit signals. The context for this activity is sending a command to the New Horizons spacecraft telling it to take a picture of Pluto. Includes teacher background, adaptations, and student data sheets. (View Less)