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**Earth and space science**

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In this activity, students become familiar with the orientation of shadows, their size in relation to the object casting them, and how the alignment of the Sun, the object, and the shadow tells us much about how shadows work. Supplies needed for... (View More) this investigation include pebbles, coins, marbles or counting blocks, a box of chalk, chalk/wipeboard and markers, overhead projector or lamp. This is lesson 4 of Threads of Inquiry: Observing the World Around Us, a series of 10 inquiry investigations focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson includes teacher background information, Inquiry investigations are adapted to meet the developmental stage and skill level of students in three grade bands: K-2, 2-4, and 4-6. Each grade band is supported by educational strategies appropriate to the student's developmental stage, a narrative that models and describes the inquiry process applied in the lesson, and a hands-on inquiry investigation. Literacy extensions and a non-linguistic pre- and post-assessment accompany each lesson. (View Less)

In this activity, students become familiar with the orientation of shadows, their size in relation to the object casting them, and how the alignment of the Sun, the object, and the shadow tells us much about how shadows work. Supplies needed for... (View More) this investigation include pebbles, coins, marbles or counting blocks, a box of chalk, chalk/wipeboard and markers, overhead projector or lamp. This is lesson 4 of Threads of Inquiry: Observing the World Around Us, a series of 10 inquiry investigations focusing on the changing seasons and other aspects of our everyday existence. Each lesson includes teacher background information, Inquiry investigations are adapted to meet the developmental stage and skill level of students in three grade bands: K-2, 2-4, and 4-6. Each grade band is supported by educational strategies appropriate to the student's developmental stage, a narrative that models and describes the inquiry process applied in the lesson, and a hands-on inquiry investigation. Literacy extensions and a non-linguistic pre- and post-assessment accompany each lesson. (View Less)

In this kinesthetic activity, students learn how photons may be transmitted, absorbed, or scattered. Materials required include a small ball, an overhead projector, 4 clear cups, different liquids (milk, water, black ink, grape juice), and a... (View More) flashlight. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

Highlights of Laura Ingalls Wilder's classic children's novel, Little House on the Prairie, provides passages where hypothermia is evidenced. It is suggested that these passages can be used as examples within a general unit on health and the human... (View More) body, or even as an introduction to a writing assignment on observations. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this demonstration, the process of cooling by evaporation is related to the serious health risk of hypothermia. Materials required include a desk fan, thermometer with exposed bulb, cotton or gauze, bowl, and material including cotton and wool.... (View More) This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

A caller on an automotive-themed radio program asked for help with a problem. It seems that when it rained her windshield wipers sometimes turned themselves on. How is this possible? This resource provides an explanation by exploring electrical... (View More) currents. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This hands-on activity demonstrates how the combining two fluids (confluence of two rivers, Mediterranean water spilling over the straits of Gibraltar into the Atlantic) involves two processes: (1) stirring - stretching of the bulk fluid, and (2)... (View More) mixing - exchange of materials on the molecular level (diffusion). Milk, chocolate milk, pie pans and stirring sticks are required for this activity. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

Using the reflection seen in the bowl of a spoon as an example, this resource describes how an everyday childhood observation can lead to understanding how curved mirrors are used in telescopes and satellite dishes. This resource is from PUMAS -... (View More) Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

In this demonstration, a soda bottle, paper and straws are used to show learners that air has mass and takes up space. The activity is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and... (View More) engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)

This resource uses an everyday example of walking a dog as a context where students can observe changes in shadows over the course of a day, and deduce that light travels and tends to maintain its direction of motion. The activity is from PUMAS -... (View More) Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications. (View Less)