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In this textbook chapter, students examine the data from Mauna Loa to see that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing. The seasonal signal observed in the data is explained by the growth cycle of plants in the Northern Hemisphere. Pre-industrial records of atmospheric becomes CO² are presented as evidence of the role of humans in increasing becomes CO² concentrations. This is the sixth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth’s climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.