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In this textbook chapter, students are introduced to Mendelian inheritance and the biological processes through which changes in DNA are created and propagated within a population. An activity teaches students about dominant and recessive alleles, using coin tosses to complete a Punnett Square. Sickle cell anemia is provided as an example of evidence of natural selection in human populations, and the importance of crop biodiversity is addressed. The resource includes a link to current news articles and a teacher's guide. This is the fourth chapter in the unit, Losing Biodiversity, examining the endangerment and extinction of entire species of plants and animals throughout the world due to human actions. The resource is part of Global System Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.